The rats and mice in our homes, businesses and cities are a real problem because they:
Rodent control has three main aspects: sanitation, rodent proofing, and rodent trapping/baiting. Sanitation and proofing although costly, time consuming, and slow to show results, are the most important parts of rodent control. Conditions that foster the rodent problem must be eliminated.
Sanitation: The presence of garbage and other refuse allows rats to exist in residential areas. Good sanitation will not eliminate rats under all conditions, but will make the environment less suitable for them to thrive. This involves proper storage and handling of food materials and refuse, and elimination of rodent shelter.
While rodents find warmth and shelter inside structures, food is their first reason for living in and around structures. Eliminate possible rodent food sources:
Mice hoard food in inaccessible areas, so removal of known supplies may not reduce mouse infestations immediately.
Rodent Proofing: Seal any openings larger than 1/4 inch to exclude both rats and mice. Openings where utilities enter buildings should be sealed tightly with metal or concrete. Wood, plaster and caulk will not keep rats out. Equip floor drains and sewer pipes with tight-fitting grates that have openings less than 1/4 inch in diameter. Doors, windows and screens should fit tightly. It may be necessary to cover edges with sheet metal to prevent gnawing. Ideally, all places where food is stored, processed or used should be rodent-proof.
How to construct a Bait Box for poisoning rats
Municipal Rodent Management - IDPH Rodent Prevention & Control - IDPH
How To Set A Rat Trap Safely All about Hantaviruses - CDC
Mice and their Control
Rat and Mouse Control - University of Florida
Non-chemical Rodent Control - University of Florida
Principles of Vertebrate Pest Management - W.S.U.