Additions: bold, italicized
URBANIZATION PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
In the Background Report on the existing land use pattern of Marion County, the pattern of urbanization in the County was described as being similar to many other areas in the United States. Urban development is proceeding outward from urban areas in a rather scattered manner leaving much undeveloped land in its wake. The term "sprawl" has been used to describe the manner in which development proceeds over the countryside. The only difference between the pattern and the process of urbanization in Marion County and some of the larger urbanizing areas is the amount of sprawl and the rate at which it is occurring. However, the problems that sprawl poses to people of Marion County are probably more crucial than in most other areas because of the importance of natural resources to the local economy. The continued expansion of urban areas and preservation of farm and forest lands become competing interests that must be balanced to the benefit of both.
The problems associated with a pattern of sprawling development involve both direct and indirect monetary and social costs, affecting all people of the County, whether urban or rural. Some of the problems resulting from sprawl are:
a. A land use pattern which is less desirable and less stable than could be achieved by coordinated, planned development;
b. A land use pattern which is costly to develop and service;
c. A greater expenditure of land and energy resources; and
d. A greater disruption of agricultural uses.
A land use pattern created by many small-scale developments, each constructed without knowledge of future surrounding land uses or circulation patterns, is likely to lack some essential ingredients of long-term desirability. Incompatible relationships between residential and non-residential uses are almost certain to occur. The difficulty of accurately anticipating school and park needs will usually result in poor locations of these facilities in relation to their service population and/or street system. Without knowing the future land use pattern and traffic likely to be generated, it is difficult to design circulation systems which won't require unanticipated improvements. Such required improvements may, when developed, lessen the desirability of some of the adjacent land uses. In many areas of the country it has been demonstrated that many of these problems can be eliminated through coordinated public and private planning on a larger scale. Such actions result in community areas with more amenities and greater stability.
Higher costs are incurred both initially and ultimately in providing many public services to a sprawl pattern. Scattered development requires extension of services through many vacant areas, and under-utilization of the services through many vacant areas is also the prime source of higher costs involved in the ultimate pattern of sprawl. At saturation (i.e. when development has essentially stopped with little or no usable vacant land left) the process of sprawl will have resulted in a pattern of relatively low density, and because the same number of people could have been served at a higher density by fewer facilities, the total costs will be higher.
In addition to social and economic considerations of urban development patterns, there is also problems of competing and conflicting urban verses rural land use interests. All of the 20 cities in Marion County are surrounded by either farm land or forest land. As urban areas continue to expand, these resource lands are either directly converted to urban uses or are adversely impacted due to inherent conflicts between rural and urban activities.
The continued loss of farm and forest land in the County will have some serious implications on continued viability of the agricultural industry and agricultural land use pattern. If agricultural, forestry and other land resource based interests are to remain sound, then the pattern of urbanization needs to be contained. We must recognize that Marion County cannot provide for the bulk of housing needs of its population within rural areas. The lands within our rural areas have limited capacity to carry this growth and those limitations must be recognized and planned for.
Cities are expected to continue to grow and expand. There are, however, more desirable ways than others for this expansion to occur. The issue becomes one of the manner in which urban areas develop.
Marion County's basic planning goal is the conservation and intelligent use of our land and related resources. Elimination of sprawl and creation of a more compact urban expansion pattern should help in achieving that goal. Conservation of land not only decreases the rate at which conversion from agricultural use to urban use transpires, but it also substantially reduces some of the direct conflicts between agriculture and non-farmland uses.
In an effort to address the County’s basic planning goal and coordinate planning activities with the cities regarding urban growth and expansion issues, the County initiated an urban growth management project in 1998. The multi-year planning project completed in 2002, resulted in adoption of an Urban Growth Management Framework and Implementation Strategy as an amendment to the Urbanization Element of the County Comprehensive Plan. The Framework provides a growth management policy guide for use by the County and cities to help ensure future growth and expansion issues are coordinated, and that growth can be accommodated in a manner that integrates the varied planning interests of both the County and cities.
URBAN LAND USE GOALS
The Urbanization Goal of Marion County is to provide for an orderly and efficient transition from rural to urban land use. Sub-goals for beneficial patterns of urban land use include the following:
a. Development of urbanization consistent with area-wide goals and objectives.
b. Establish Urban Growth Boundaries to identify and separate urbanizable land from rural land and contain urban land uses within those areas most capable of supporting such uses.
c. To provide for an orderly transition from rural to urban land use.
d. Development of a population distribution pattern in which most persons employed within an urban community live in and participate in the activities and government of that community.
e. Development of stable and attractive residential areas protected from incompatible land uses and containing a wide variety of housing types and densities.
f. Development of a commercial land use pattern which assures a convenient and adequate supply of goods and services to the resident, transient and trade area population.
g. Development of commercial areas and employment centers that favor being located in relation to the urban transportation system.
h. Development of industrial land use within urbanized areas unless an industry specifically is best suited to a rural site.
i. Provision of sufficient areas for future industrial land use.
j. Direct urbanization away from agricultural areas composed of major units of Class I through IV soils.
k. Provide adequate review of development of permanent structures in the identified natural hazard or damage areas to minimize potential loss of life or property.
URBAN AREA PLANNING
To achieve the desired objectives of managing urban expansion, it is necessary to develop urban growth programs jointly with the cities, Marion County and special districts. These programs should be developed primarily through the comprehensive planning processes of each community with concurrence by the County and the State. The Land Conservation and Development Commission Goal 14 – Urbanization, provides the basis for development of these programs as part of each city's comprehensive plan.
Each urban growth program should consist of at least an urban growth limit or boundary, urban development policies or ordinances to achieve the desired purpose, and joint city-county agreements to coordinate land use planning activities.
The purpose of an urban growth program is to provide for orderly, efficient development of urban areas. As discussed in the problems and issues section, uncontrolled development to urban densities is costly and an inefficient use of land. The adoption of an urban program for each community in Marion County will limit urban sprawl and its adverse impacts while providing better resource protection in rural areas. The development of these programs will serve the dual role in providing for adequate areas for urban expansion.
Each city is required by State law to comply with the LCDC Urbanization Goal 14 by developing establishing an urban growth boundary. These boundaries are for the purpose of identifying the geographic limit to which urban development will expand during the foreseeable future, which for cities is the 20-year planning horizon of their acknowledged comprehensive plans. The main intent of boundaries is to logically contain urban sprawl and separate urbanizable lands from rural lands.
The establishment of each urban growth boundary which also involves proposals to expand the existing, acknowledged growth boundary, should be based upon the following criteria as indicated in the Land Conservation and Development Commission Urbanization Goal.
a. Demonstrated need to accommodate long-range urban population growth requirements consistent with LCDC goals;
b. Need for housing, employment opportunities, and livability;
c. Orderly and economic provision for public facilities and services;
d. Maximum efficiency of land uses within and on the fringe of the existing urban area;
e. Environmental, energy, economic and social consequences;
f. Retention of agricultural land as defined, with Class I being the highest priority for retention and Class VI the lowest priority; and
g. Compatibility of the proposed urban uses with nearby agricultural activities.
The state goal requires each community to develop establish an urban growth boundary as part of its Comprehensive Plan program. The extent and location of each urban growth boundary will be based upon the individual community needs, conditions and growth expectations. The area identified for future urbanization should be considered flexible with any changes occurring based upon changing needs of the community, and considering consideration of the above LCDC Statewide Land Use Planning Goal 14 criteria, and applicable provisions of the Urban Growth Management Framework.
Marion County and each of the 20 cities in the County have jointly agreed upon and adopted an urban growth boundary as part of each city's comprehensive plan. These boundaries are shown on the General Land Use/Transportation Plan Map. The County and each of the cities have adopted intergovernmental agreements in the form of Urban Growth Boundary and Policy Agreements for establishment of the urban growth boundaries, to address coordination requirements regarding Plan amendments and changes to the boundaries, and for identification of areas of special mutual concern.
A list of the acreage of land contained within each city's urban growth boundary is included in the Background and Inventory Report. These boundaries, when established in the late 1970s and early 1980s, included sufficient land to accommodate the projected 267,000 persons by the year 2000. This indicatesd an increase of more than 115,900 persons between the years 1978 and 2000. ORS 195.036 provisions adopted in 1995 designated counties with the responsibility for establishing and maintaining a coordinated population forecast for the entire area including cities within its boundary, for use in maintaining and updating comprehensive plans. In October 1998, the County adopted new, coordinated population projections for the incorporated and unincorporated portions of Marion County. The projected year 2020 population for the County is 350,952 which is an increase of 83,252 over the 1997 base year population of 267,700 used for the projections. The 2000 Census population count for the County was 284,838. The population projections for each city are one of the primary factors used in determining urban growth boundary areas and are included in each city's comprehensive plan as plans are updated or through a city’s periodic review process of their plan, and in the County Background and Inventory Report.
The countywide Urban Growth Management Project Framework utilized a long-range 50 year planning horizon as a means of allowing cities to begin looking beyond the 20 year timeframe of comprehensive plans with regard to population, land capacities and needs, and facilities planning.
The management of the urbanizable land area between the city limits and the urban growth boundary requires special coordination between the city and the County. The city has an interest in the future of this area since it may eventually become a part of the city through annexation and extension of services. The County retains legal authority to control land use actions in this area, and therefore, is responsible for the conditions that are inherited by the city upon annexation. This makes it necessary for the city and county to coordinate the planning and land use control for this transition or urbanizable area.
The Comprehensive Plan for each city projects the city's growth through a land use plan for its urban area. With the county's concurrence, these plans, with their implementing policies, can be carried out by the County in the areas immediately outside of each city limits. The relationship of the city providing leadership in planning the future of urbanizable lands while the County implements the plans through land use control, is crucial to accomplishing the urbanization goals.
URBAN GROWTH POLICIES
In defining urbanizable land areas with urban growth boundaries, it is necessary to provide implementation measures to affect their purpose. Urban Growth Policies can provide guidance in making the land use decisions that will direct the future of the urbanizable land areas. The mutual agreement of the cities and the County to these policies is vital to the effective coordination and cooperation necessary to implement each urban growth program. The following are urban growth policies that should guide the conversion of the urbanizable areas adjacent to each city to urban uses. In addition, the Urban Growth Management Framework provides policies and coordination guidelines that focus on specific growth issues pertaining to transportation, environment, economic development and housing to guide cities in evaluating future land needs and land use decisions.
1. The type and manner of development of the urbanizable land shall be based upon each community's land use proposals and development standards that are jointly agreed upon by each city and Marion County and are consistent with the LCDC Goals.
2. The provision of urban services and facilities should be in an orderly economic basis according to a phased growth plan.
3. Development of the urban area should proceed from its center outward.
4. Development should occur in areas of existing services before extending new services.
5. Divisions of urbanizable land shall consider the maximum utility of the land resource and enable the logical and efficient extension of services to such parcels.
6. Generally cities are the most logical providers of urban services. Where special service districts exist beyond the city limits and within the urban growth boundary such as around Salem, all parties shall work towards the development of the most efficient and economical method of providing needed services. Urban services shall not be extended beyond the urban growth boundary, except as provided for in Special District Policies 6, 7 and 8.
7. Urban densities shall be established only within recognized urban growth boundaries unless an exception to Goal 14 (Urbanization ) is obtained.
8. The majority of the projected population increases in Marion County should be directed to the urban areas.
9. Sufficient developable land shall be made available to provide choices in the market place.
10. The annexation of rural lands into the legal boundary of any city shall be limited to the area contained within the mutually adopted Urban Growth Boundary. Exceptions to this prohibition may be allowed consistent with Special District Policies 6, 7 and 8. The annexation of lands outside of an Urban Growth Boundary shall be limited to lands having a prior exception to Statewide Goal 3 (Agricultural Lands) and Goal 4 (Forest Lands). Annexation procedures shall be consistent with the requirements of state law and the local coordination policies contained in the Urban Growth Boundary and Policy Agreement or growth management agreement/compact.
11. Any city proposing to annex rural lands located outside of an Urban Growth Boundary into a city limits shall carry the burden of proving compliance with the applicable goals and policies of the Marion County Comprehensive Plan, the city’s comprehensive plan, the Urban Growth Boundary and Policy Agreement or growth management agreement/compact and state statute and administrative rules.
12. An updated intergovernmental agreement or compact between the County and a city that is consistent with the Urban Growth Management Framework shall be required as each city goes through Periodic Review or updates its comprehensive plan where County concurrence is necessary.
URBAN GROWTH MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
Future population and employment growth projected in Marion County creates both challenges and opportunities for maintaining the quality of life in Marion County. Resources such as water and farmland will be limited and congestion and travel times will probably increase in urban areas. Marion County recognizes its responsibility to coordinate with cities and ensure the efficient use of urbanizable land before allowing urban expansion to occur. Marion County also recognizes that cities have the primary responsibility to plan for the growth of their communities. Nevertheless, without coordination with and among the cities, development may occur in areas that result in even greater negative impacts on transportation and infrastructure systems and the agricultural land base of the County. For example, the ability to move freight and people throughout the County may be jeopardized if growth occurs in areas where the transportation system is not adequately developed to serve additional capacity.
Uncoordinated development may also result in patterns of growth that are not desired by the citizens in Marion County and may ultimately reduce the quality of life in the County. However, if managed effectively, the adverse impacts of the additional growth can be minimized. Through a collaborative and coordinated effort to manage growth, development can be planned in locations that best serve the County, and the accompanying transportation and infrastructure systems can be developed with the greatest efficiency. The quality of life can be preserved by maintaining the characteristics in each community that make it unique, and by directing development in each community to be consistent with each community’s values.
Understanding the importance and need to lessen the impacts of growth, the Marion County Board of Commissioners initiated the Marion County Urban Growth Management Project in 1998. The Project objective was to develop a policy and implementation strategy through an urban growth management framework plan as a component of the Marion County Comprehensive Plan, for guiding and coordinating urban growth among the cities in the County. The growth management project utilized a long-range 2050 planning horizon and was undertaken to provide initial data needed to evaluate future growth and establish a framework to address growth issues. It is expected that the initial data used to develop the Framework will be modified and expanded as the cities and County undertake further analysis to address specific growth needs and issues.
The growth management project planning effort engaged the cities, interest groups and residents in a cooperative effort to look at where growth is likely to occur under current development trends and where it should be encouraged or discouraged in the future. During the various phases of the project, coordinated population projections and land capacities for the cities for the year 2050 were analyzed and a countywide growth strategy known as the Growth Management Framework was created with input from the public and the 20 cities in the County.
The values driving the Growth Management Framework are a set of 24 guiding principles identified in the growth management project through public involvement by collaboration and consensus, that provide a link between quality of life, economic development, and land use planning as a way to sustain the values deemed important by residents in their vision for the County. The guiding principles focus on regional elements of growth management that go beyond jurisdictional boundaries such as transportation, housing, environmental, and economic needs and are the basis for the goals set forth in the Growth Management Framework.
The purpose of the Growth Management Framework is to:
1. Identify common goals, principles, and tools that will lead to more coordinated planning and promote a collaborative approach to developing solutions to growth issues.
2. Be consistent with city plans for growth by modifying the growth projections in response to city feedback.
3. Protect farm, forest, and resource lands throughout the County by considering the existing growth capacity of each community, fostering the efficient use of land, and evaluating urban growth boundary expansion needs.
4. Maintain physical separation of communities by limiting urbanization of farm and forest lands between cities.
5. Maintain community identity by encouraging each community to decide how it should grow and by promoting city decision-making control.
6. Support a balance of jobs and housing opportunities for communities and areas throughout the county that contribute to the needs of regional and city economies.
7. Provide transportation corridors and options that connect and improve accessibility and mobility for residents along with the movement of goods and services throughout the county.
The Urban Growth Management Framework is a coordination planning strategy that provides a guide cities may follow when considering urban expansion needs and decisions in response to growth issues. The Framework identifies the areas of interest for the County regarding urbanization and possible measures in the form of coordination guidelines, that cities may choose to pursue to accommodate efficient growth. Within the context of the Framework, coordination guidelines are defined as being “flexible directions or measures that may be utilized to address specific policy statements.”
The Framework is intended to provide direction and assistance for the cities through a checklist of factors for consideration in making decisions regarding the impacts of growth. The decision as to how to use the Framework and which guidelines may be important and applicable, is up to the cities. The County recognizes there may be several ways to approach and resolve an issue and the Framework provides flexibility for the cities in coordinating planning efforts with the County.
The growth management strategy is based on a multi-year planning effort that defined a Growth Management Framework. The Growth Management Framework is designed to adhere to the principles contained in this chapter and to accommodate approximately 500,400 residents and 212,500 jobs within the 20 cities and unincorporated portions of Marion County by the year 2050. The Growth Management Framework Preferred Alternative growth scenario focuses the majority of the growth in the County to the larger communities of Salem, Keizer, Woodburn, Stayton and Silverton, with growth occurring primarily inside the current UGBs of cities where there is available capacity, and through infill and redevelopment where appropriate.
The long-range population and employment targets of the Framework are a starting point for the establishment and maintenance of 20 year forecasts that are used to coordinate comprehensive plans, and that will be updated from time to time. The projections used in the Framework are not intended to be a substitute for specific housing or economic analysis conducted by cities to meet State planning requirements. As actual growth rates change or as new studies are conducted and acknowledged, it is expected that the long-range growth forecasts in this Framework will be updated and revised. Such revisions do not require an amendment to this Framework.
How the additional population and employment are accommodated will be consistent with the comprehensive plans of the cities and State law, and coordinated with the Marion County Comprehensive Plan. The Framework is intended to provide guidance in coordination amongst the cities and the County, and to establish evaluation guidelines that will help the County determine if additional coordination efforts may be necessary. City plans that consider applicable goals, policies, and guidelines identified in the Framework are less likely to require further review by the County and will be considered to be coordinated.
During selection of the Growth Management Framework preferred growth alternative, project participants in the process chose a countywide land use pattern that best suited the many, sometimes conflicting goals of the County and its cities. The 2050 forecast represents the combination of existing city development trends and growth capabilities, and works in direct coordination with both the land efficiency standards of the Framework and the existing land capacities within the 19 urban growth boundaries in the County.
The 2050 forecast represents a long-range planning tool, one that provides cities and the County with a preliminary image of what may be on the horizon. It provides a framework within which to begin considering planning issues and decisions beyond the 20 year timeframes for city comprehensive plans, ranging from the amount and locations of different allowed uses, to critical sizing of infrastructure. The forecast provides a starting point for all 20 cities and the County as they plan for the future, makes cities aware of what other cities may be planning for, and coordinates their comprehensive and other plans with a long-range forecast.
One of the most important functions of city plans is the ability to plan for urban growth boundary expansions needed to accommodate projected growth. At the same time, one of the highest principles of Marion County is to prevent sprawl in order to protect valuable farm and forest lands. Included in the Framework strategy are land efficiency standards for cities to consider in analyzing land needs. Application of the efficiency standards would be for the entire area of an urban growth boundary. Where a common boundary exists for two cities as with the cities of Keizer and Salem, each city may be able to have a different standard provided the overall efficiency of both cities combined meets the standard applied to the Salem-Keizer boundary. When plans meet these efficiency standards, the County considers the land use to be sufficiently efficient. Plans that fall below these standards or provide alternative efficiency measures will need further County review in consideration with other applicable factors of the Framework.
As a tool for planning, the forecast will be revisited every five years, examining actual performance within jurisdictions and available updated forecasts. The 2050 forecast will not be used in the evaluation of growth boundary expansion proposals. Boundary expansions are based on a 20-year planning horizon using a coordinated population forecast adopted as part of a city’s comprehensive plan. If at any time, actual performance or growth rates indicate a needed modification to the forecast, the City and County may revisit the forecast and make appropriate changes to their intergovernmental agreements, or the County can consider revisions to the official coordinated forecast for all the cities through its forecast responsibilities under the provisions of ORS 195.036..
The following chart contains the coordinated 2050 long-range forecast, and the amount of additional land that may be needed to accommodate the 2050 forecast using the land efficiency standards and commercial and industrial land need estimates.
2000 From Census
Coordinated Long Range 2050 Forecast
Urbanization Land Need Estimate(acres)***
Marion County Unincorporated
Total Marion County
* Marion County portions only
** Based on Salem Futures estimates and an UGB with a 20-year land supply
*** The Marion County Framework Land Need is the estimated acreage required in addition to that within the current Urban Growth Boundary assuming that the land use efficiency standards of the Framework are met and including the commercial and industrial land need estimates for the forecasts.
An important part of the Framework is the ability of the County and city plans to function together to meet the housing, employment, and transportation needs of the residents. An integral and necessary component of the Framework will be to ensure that new growth is allowed to occur in a way that accommodates the housing, employment and livability demands of this new and changing population, and that communities ensure their planning efforts allow all members of Marion County to feel welcome to settle in a place of their choosing.
GROWTH MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK GOALS
The Growth Management Framework incorporates existing goals and policies found in County planning documents, city comprehensive plans, and state land use planning law. New goals, policies and guidelines have been added to implement the planning principles identified in the countywide urban growth management project and framework. The goals and policies also make the logical connections between the common goals and values of our County’s residents, and lays out solutions to the possible conflicts that may be encountered. It brings together a series of common objectives that will better coordinate the policies of the many jurisdictions within the county. The Growth Management Framework recognizes that cities have the lead role in planning for urban growth, and that every community is unique. The Framework also recognizes the County’s responsibility under state law to coordinate the plans of its 20 cities and ensure those plans are coordinated with the County’s comprehensive plan. The policies should be implemented to balance city priorities with the countywide goals, and within the context of the statewide planning goals.
There are some issues however, that impact cities beyond jurisdictional boundaries and are regional issues. For these issues, a countywide approach of the County and cities working together to manage and develop solutions is more appropriate and effective. Further attention to coordination between the County and the cities is needed, and agreement on these goals and principles is intended to establish the topics and the levels at which coordination can be achieved. The goals best addressed through a coordinated and collaborative regional approach focus on the following four key growth issues:
3. Economic Development
In addition to the Growth Management Framework, coordination and UGB agreements with city governments will be utilized to ensure that city plans are coordinated throughout the County. Coordination agreements should also contain the general policies and specific guidelines of the Framework, with variations incorporated to reflect the specific situations and growth concerns in each city and its environs.
Overriding all goals and policies related to the four key issues identified above are growth management goals or guiding principles that should be met to ensure that coordination is effective at the city and countywide levels. These goals or principles include:
1. Base decisions on a long-range vision for the area, incorporating both community visions and long-range city plans. Ensure that the effects city decisions have on the surrounding county and neighboring cities are understood and considered, and that identified conflicts are resolved.
2. Foster the use of creativity and innovation in planned growth and development projects to maintain the unique character of all cities.
3. Provide for balanced and managed growth to ensure equity among the cities and allow for more efficient use of our natural resources.
4. Honor the unique identities of communities and strengthen unique characteristics.
5. Embrace ethnic and cultural diversity and address the needs of different cultures in land use decisions and consider ethnic and cultural differences in the long-range vision and zoning designations.
6. Rely on the strengths of city decision-making coordinated with a countywide vision.
7. Ensure long-range coordination among the County, cities, and special districts through monitoring of the cumulative effects of city plans and decisions, and utilization of uniform standards.
The transportation goals or guiding principles that are part of the Framework address the role of transportation in providing efficient movement of people and freight throughout the county. The County will review city Transportation System Plans (TSPs) and/or transportation elements of city comprehensive plans with these goals in mind. The goals include:
A. Encourage use of alternative modes of transportation including mass transit, bicycling, walking and carpooling.
B. Address transportation needs appropriate to both urban and rural areas throughout the county.
In creating a countywide framework to coordinate plans and assist in the cooperative goal of managing growth, it is helpful to provide guidelines to evaluate the effectiveness of plan coordination. The transportation policies provide guidance in making the land use decisions that will direct the future location of jobs and housing in the county through integration with land use planning goals and policies. Consensus between the cities and the County regarding the importance and value of these policies and coordination guidelines is necessary to create a transportation system that can move people and goods efficiently throughout the county. The following policies and coordination guidelines provide direction as to how this transportation system can be developed, and are intended to serve as a basis for future cooperative agreements between the County and cities.
1. Marion County shall jointly plan with communities to meet the transportation needs in the future.Coordination Guidelines:
· The Marion County Transportation System Plan (TSP) will be designed to accommodate the forecast population, housing, and employment identified in this Framework, as well as the areas that are planned for urban expansion, in coordination with the communities involved.
· The Marion County TSP will investigate countywide alternative transportation, such as inter-city transit, vanpooling, and passenger rail service serving the county and the Willamette Valley region.
2. Communities should implement street connectivity standards.
· Lack of street connectivity in cities can result in longer trips and divert traffic onto county and state roads. Therefore, city TSPs and/or transportation elements of city comprehensive plans shall contain effective policies that require street connectivity. Further, the Framework recognizes the Local Street Connectivity Element of the Salem TSP as a quality example.
· The County will coordinate and adopt connectivity standards for urban areas within its planning jurisdiction.
· When feasible, the County will utilize city standards (such as those in the Salem TSP and Salem Revised Code for example) for development that occurs on unincorporated lands within UGBs.
3. Coordinate the enhancement or addition of transit connections within and between cities.
· City transportation plans for the two transit systems (Woodburn Transit System and Salem Cherriots) should contain a transit element coordinated with both the Framework forecast and the preferred growth alternative. Future small transit systems should be investigated for cities that will exceed 10,000 people in the preliminary 2050 Framework forecast. The County will investigate and encourage inter-city transit provision through a variety of public and private providers.
4. Allow for a complementary mix of land uses and transportation systems.
· Mixed land uses encourage walking and biking trips, and keep auto trips short and on city streets. County agreements with the cities should provide for zoning that allows the co-location of employment and residential uses (mixed use development) in appropriate areas for communities that will exceed 5,000 persons in the preliminary 2050 Framework forecast, and encouraged in all communities.
· Transportation trips can be shortened and traffic reduced by an effective matching of retail uses to city size. Coordination efforts will strive to ensure that retail land uses over 60,000 sq. ft. or 300 employees per building are located in the urban growth boundaries of cities that are in excess of 10,000 people.
5. Encourage coordination of traffic calming methods.
· Work with cities to reach agreement on common methods of traffic calming in order to limit traffic diversion on to county and state routes, ensure delivery of emergency services, and minimize driver confusion. The County will work with cities and interested professionals to jointly develop recommended best practices and procedures for methods, locations, and processes for traffic calming.
6. Improve key freight routes.
· Cities over 10,000 population and the County should jointly plan for freight movement by both rail and truck in their transportation planning activities.
7. City plans should improve the walking and biking environment.
· Greater use of walking and biking as modes of transportation reduces traffic, helps the environment, and improves the health of county residents. All cities, urban areas within the County, and rural communities regardless of size, can develop safe and comfortable walking and biking environments. The basic tools are providing pedestrian and bicycle facilities, and allowing the development of some areas with a sufficient density and mix of uses to make walking/biking a practical alternative. Growth management agreements between the County and cities should address methods to ensure that this occurs through the TSP and/or transportation element of city comprehensive plans.
The environmental goals or guiding principles that are part of the Framework address the importance of natural resources to city and regional economies, as well as the carrying capacity of the land. The goals include:
A. Preserve and protect agricultural and forest lands, wetlands, wildlife habitat, riparian corridors and natural areas through wise stewardship.
B. Encourage planning that does not exceed the capacity of water, energy, air and other resources.
C. Promote conservation, recycling and the efficient use of energy and resources.
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND COORDINATION GUIDELINES:
The environmental policies provide guidance in planning for the protection of natural resources in Marion County. The environmental policies and guidelines listed below are partially based on Statewide Planning Goal 5 “safe harbor” standards, and may be less stringent than Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) requirements or adopted city regulations. The mutual agreement of the cities and the County to these policies and guidelines provides for effective coordination and cooperation necessary to establish a system that does not exceed the resources available in Marion County. The following policies, standards and guidelines provide direction for protection of natural resources.
1. To protect rural farm and forest lands, identify land use efficiency standards that should be met before a city can amend its Urban Growth Boundary.
· The efficiency standards serve multiple purposes in the Framework. It is listed with the Environmental Policies as the amount of new land consumed and is directly related to the average density of new development. This standard is also geared to support other urban planning objectives. From an environmental standpoint, using the highest land efficiency standard would preserve the most land. The standards however, have been set in a manner appropriate with existing development and are based on the size of the cities where they are applied. In this fashion, the standard ranges from no standard being applied for the smallest cities, up to a standard of 9 units per acre for the Salem-Keizer urban growth boundary. The standard applies to new development within the growth boundary established for each city. The Salem-Keizer boundary contains two cities that may have different efficiency standards for each city provided land efficiency for the cities of Salem and Keizer combined, meets the standard applied to their common growth boundary area
The standard measures the average density for all new residential development in units per gross buildable acre after removing land needed for schools, parks or that are environmentally constrained areas (unbuildable lands). Housing through redevelopment counts as new units, but no new land consumption, effectively increasing the efficiency measurement. The efficiency standard is not a minimum residential density standard applied to urban areas. The standard is a measurement of the overall residential land efficiency of all new housing types and provides a means of evaluating the residential use of buildable lands within an urban growth boundary. The standard does not establish minimum densities for residential land use types, does not establish minimum lot sizes or housing mix targets that a city may choose to utilize in analyzing and developing housing strategies to address its residential needs. Land efficiency is a measurement tool of the number of dwelling units developed in relation to the acres of buildable land available to accommodate those units.
The estimated land needs in the coordinated forecast include preliminary employment land needs at an additional 36% of land estimated to be needed for residential uses. Employment land estimates for cities may change as economic analyses conducted by cities provide detailed employment data.
Land efficiency and the standard can also be met through alternate methods such as utilizing a city’s Goal 10 housing and land need analysis that is coordinated with the County and surrounding cities. The efficiency standard represents the average density for new housing that will be zoned and allowed under clear and objective standards by the city. There is no requirement in this Framework for adherence to any minimum density zoning standards. The purpose is to ensure that comprehensive plans are predictable in their effect, that agricultural, forestry, and environmentally sensitive lands in the County can be protected where feasible, and that the cumulative effects of city plans can be determined with conflicts identified and resolved. A prime example is that of cities which grow together into a single urbanized area. This possibility could exist in the Gervais, Hubbard and Woodburn area of the County, and the area including Aumsville, Stayton and Sublimity.
There are a variety of reasons for the increase in the efficiency standard as cities grow. Larger cities in Marion County serve as employment centers for their portions of the county. As job centers, it is important to locate a choice of housing opportunities within close proximity. Additionally, larger cities have a higher percentage of multi-family housing, making their average densities higher. These cities are also more likely to be served by transit, which both assists and relies on the greater densities found there. There may be situations that require that the standards be adjusted. These situations can be addressed at any time through the Intergovernmental Agreements or compacts between the cities and the County addressing this Framework, or in the coordination of city plans or amendments to plans, that affect the efficiency of a comprehensive plan.
The following chart defines the efficiency standards in housing units per gross acre, for new residential development created since the adoption date of the Framework. The residential efficiency standard is a composite number of all residential development (single-family and multifamily) occurring within a community, including housing through redevelopment (for which no land is considered consumed). The standards are divided into five categories in accordance with projected city size in 2050:
· For cities forecasted to be larger than 25,000 people, the standard is 8 housing units per acre;
· For cities between 10,000 and 25,000 people, the standard is 7 housing units per acre;
· For cities between 2,500 and 10,000 people, the standard is 6 housing units per acre;
· For cities between 1,000 and 2,500 people, the standard is 5 housing units per acre;
· For cities less than 1,000 people, no efficiency standard would be applied.
· Salem, the largest city in the County has an efficiency standard of 9 housing units per acre which is based on results from the “Salem Futures” planning project, and may be modified based on their final adopted policies.
The County recognizes there may be valid reasons for different efficiencies in land use. However, the spread of cities onto rural land is often the source of conflicts between cities and the County, and between cities. The County will use the following standards for coordination purposes. The efficiency standards may be replaced by different standards or measures based on a coordinated city plan, and adopted in an Urban Growth Management Agreement between a city and the County. However, the efficiency standard applicable to a city shall not be reduced by more than one housing unit per acre.
UGB 2050 Population
Compact Land Efficiency Standard in Housing Units Per Gross Acre
Less than 1,000
1,000 to 2,500
2,500 to 10,000
10,000 to 25,000
Greater than 25,000
Salem (From Salem Future’s Project)
2. The streams and watersheds of the County flow without regard to political boundaries, and their health depends on a consistent and coordinated approach throughout the County. City plans should protect streams, wetlands, riparian corridors, floodplains, and significant wildlife areas from the negative effects of development in accordance with state law.
Coordination Guidelines: The following guidelines are derived from the “safe harbor” provisions of the Statewide Planning Goal 5 Administrative Rule and are recommended as baseline protection measures.
· Streams shall be buffered from development at least 50 feet from the top of bank. Rivers with a flow of over 1,000 cfs shall be buffered from development at least 75 feet from the top of bank.
· Significant wetlands shall be protected from conflicting development.
· Development in floodplains should be restricted to balanced cut and fill, within the parcel to be developed.
3. Development should retain vegetation buffers along streams, lakes, and reservoirs to provide shelter, shade, food and nesting for wildlife resources.
Coordination Guidelines: The following are recommended measures.
· Division of State Lands (DSL) standards should be used to identify locally significant wetlands.
· Within stream or wetland buffers and areas within the 100-year FEMA floodplain natural vegetation should be retained.
· In the case of non-native species, native plant species should be used to replace existing vegetation so long as the overall quantity and distribution of vegetation remains the same.
4. Require preservation of more farm and forest land over the long term.
· City plans should identify and adopt a realistic rate of redevelopment and infill for calculation of UGB capacities in cities considering expansion onto lands protected under Statewide Planning Goals 3 and 4.
· City plans should address and set targets for mixed-use or other similar types of development. This could include a percentage of residential and employment land uses that are co-located to increase the efficiency of land within the UGBs.
· The County will manage the rural areas to encourage the preservation of the rural environment, and discourage the development of new communities of housing and employment outside of urban growth boundaries and designated unincorporated communities.
5. Plans should address how resources for the forecasted employment and population will be provided.
· Existing vacant land shall be analyzed for the capacity to meet future land need. A jurisdiction must consider the feasibility of rezoning vacant land to a different land use type in order to create additional capacity for the type of development a potential UGB amendment would seek to provide.
· Encourage that zoning be in place to meet or exceed residential and employment land needs. Cities should also analyze their ability to meet housing and employment capacity targets, as identified by the Framework. If the identified capacity is insufficient to meet the population or employment needs, an UGB expansion may be anticipated. For cities that will require expansions of their UGB’s, monitor the progress toward meeting the efficiency standards on a periodic basis
6. Encourage and work with jurisdictions and private landowners to protect water resources in the county.
· The County will work with watershed groups, jurisdictions, and agencies to protect environmentally sensitive areas critical to watershed health.
· The County will promote and target restoration efforts to critical groundwater areas and develop water management approaches such as monitoring and evaluation programs based on collaborative actions.
The economic development goals or guiding principles that are part of the Framework address the importance of maintaining a diverse employment base with living wage jobs. The goals include:
A. Encourage diversity and balance of job types (e.g., service and industry jobs).
B. Promote economic opportunity for all segments of society.
C. Encourage a sustainable local and regional economy
D. Tailor economic development to the unique assets and needs of the county and its individual communities.
The economic development policies can provide guidance in making land use decisions that will provide a diverse employment base in Marion County that allows each city’s employment sector to complement rather than compete with each other. The mutual agreement of the cities and the County to these policies is vital to the effective coordination and cooperation necessary to create an economic development plan that allows for jobs and services to remain in the County. The following policies and guidelines provide direction for a coordinated economic development plan.
1. Identify the existing capacity of employment uses.
· City plans should create an inventory of lands suitable for employment use.
· City plans should calculate capacity for jobs categorized by land use type of their employment lands.
· City and County plans may allow expansion of urban growth boundaries consistent with state land use planning law to provide needed lands for employment use consistent with the other applicable guidelines in the Framework.
2. Plan to provide for the forecasted employment in city and County plans.
· Examine plans and implementing ordinances and recommend changes where necessary to coordinate employment lands inventory with the land needs forecast.
· If development density allowed is too low to attract investment, consider modifications to zoning regulations that will be appropriate.
· Encourage cities to conduct an economic opportunities analysis to serve as the basis for employment and land needs projections, and to develop an economic development strategy.
3. Support economic growth and development opportunities in cities in rural areas thatrecognize their distinct character and economic potential.
· The County will assist and work with the cities, economic development agencies, area economic development groups, and major institutions to provide information to support development of a region-wide strategy promoting a sustainable economy.
The housing goals or guiding principles that are part of the Framework address the importance of providing a diversity and range of housing choices, both in style and affordability. The goals include:
A. Encourage the availability of a wide variety of housing choices to meet the needs of a diverse population.
B. Encourage access to adequate housing for all citizens, commensurate with their incomes.
C. Encourage quality design for development that is sensitive to existing communities and the natural environment.
The housing policies provide guidance in making land use decisions that will assist cities in their efforts to provide housing types and densities that meet the anticipated demand for housing in their communities. The mutual agreement of the cities and County to these policies is vital to the effective coordination and cooperation necessary to provide adequate housing for all county residents, while still protecting the unique characteristics of each community. The following policies and guidelines provide direction to create a housing plan that maintains and enhances the livability of each community.
1. Zone vacant land to accommodate expected housing needs.
· City plans should identify a mix of housing types (single-family, townhouse, multifamily and others) in cities with a population over 2,500 and ensure that sufficient, vacant, buildable land is zoned to provide for that mix, understanding that vacant land may also be used for non-residential purposes.
· City plans should allow diverse housing types in multiple residential zones, including a variety of ownership types and should efficiently use multiple family zoned lands by not allowing the development capacity of the zones to be under-utilized.
· The County should lead an effort with the cities to develop a numeric goal of providing affordable housing distributed proportionally in the cities larger than 10,000 persons in the County.
· Coordinate with the Marion County Housing Authority in developing affordable housing projects in areas that have good walking, biking, transit service and access to services.
· City and County plans may allow expansion of urban growth boundaries consistent with state land use planning law to provide additional land for housing consistent with the other applicable guidelines in the Framework.
2. Encourage identification of the existing capacity of residential uses.
· If development density allowed is too low to attract investment, consider modifications to zoning regulations that will be appropriate.
3. Encourage quality design of new construction
· Encourage adoption of clear and objective design standards for multi-family and commercial construction in cities over 10,000 people and support their adoption in smaller communities.
FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
In addition to its population coordination responsibilities (ORS 195.025), Marion County has joint agreements regarding urban growth boundaries with all cities, and participates as a decision-maker on all urban growth boundary amendments. The County will work with the cities to project any future urban growth boundary expansions that may be needed, and will use its authority to minimize the impacts of new development.
The County will work closely with cities to maintain an up-to-date forecast of the development capacity of the urban growth boundaries of the cities, and their expected long-range land needs considering land use efficiency and other Framework factors. When cities conduct studies and analyses to meet State requirement and/or update their comprehensive plans, these analyses may be considered by the County when updating housing and employment forecasts. The information should be maintained by a cooperative effort between the cities and the County utilizing a monitoring system that is consistent with current tracking systems used by the cities to meet State database requests.
Modifications to urban growth boundaries will be addressed through State planning law and coordination and evaluation process of this Framework, including the protection and monitoring of urban growth boundary expansion areas for urban uses.
As urban growth affects many important parts of Marion County and its economy, a coordinated and consistent growth management policy among the 20 incorporated cities is essential. As growth issues pertaining to transportation, housing, environmental, and economic development transcend city boundaries, the County has an important coordination role with and amongst the cities. Engaging the cities to work together to develop solutions and strategies is an important coordination role for the County. It is equally important for the County to provide assistance to cities in the form of information/data collection and analysis, and develop tools that can be utilized by the cities in addressing growth issues or concerns.
The planning and growth management activities of many jurisdictions affect and are affected by the actions of other jurisdictions in the County. The future plans for development of each city can effect the development potential of neighboring cities. For example, a large retail operation locating in one of the smaller communities in Marion County will likely have a greater market draw than the immediate town. As a result, the opportunity for the neighboring cities to solicit a large retail operation is greatly reduced and the transportation impacts between communities is increased. The coordination of planning and development activities and recognition that these activities are part of an on-going and continually evolving process, is essential if urban growth management efforts are to succeed.
As part of the coordination with and between local governments, each city’s vision for the future must be taken into consideration and respected when neighboring cities are planning for their futures. One of the planning principles identified through the Marion County Urban Growth Management Framework is the need for each community to maintain the characteristics and qualities that make it unique as expressed through its adopted and acknowledged comprehensive plan. In recognition of each community’s unique character as well as growth being an issue that crosses jurisdictional boundaries, the implementation of the growth strategy has two components:
1.) The identification of and approach of, utilizing possible subareas (groups of cities) of the county to meet city needs regarding key issues and to provide links between communities; and
2.) Individual intergovernmental agreements or compacts with each city or groups of cities and the County for the specific issues relevant to each city and/or subarea of the county. This process will result in a growth strategy that improves coordination between the different entities, but also maintains the integrity of the 20 cities within the County.
COUNTYWIDE GROWTH MANAGEMENT UTILIZING SUBAREAS
Growth management including key issues and strategies, is a regional issue that transcends jurisdictional boundaries. The integration of city planning efforts to address and manage key growth issues provides a collaborative approach and action that will be far more effective than the 20 cities and the County acting independently of each other. Cities within the county are linked to each other in many ways whether it be geographically, economically, transportation, housing, resources, services or other linkages. Utilizing these connections and the knowledge that communities in an area do impact on each other, the identification of subareas in the county, that is the grouping of cities that comprise a common market within a part of the County (e.g. housing, labor) to collectively work toward common goals and strategies on key growth issues affecting each community, is an effective way to accommodate the needs of the cities and County within a countywide approach where individually, each jurisdiction’s role may be limited.
The Growth Management Framework Preferred Alternative focuses the majority of growth in the County to the larger communities of Salem, Keizer, Woodburn, Stayton and Silverton. The larger communities contain the essential components needed to accommodate growth such as infrastructure, services, developed employment lands, and a variety of housing options that are not all available in the smaller communities within the county. These larger communities serve as urban centers within several defined areas of the County around which several smaller communities are located and which are dependent upon the larger communities for various services. The transportation (roadways and rail lines) and natural resource (waterways) systems in the county provide the physical links between communities that are also influenced or impacted by growth in adjoining counties.
· The cities of Salem and Keizer form the primary urban area located within the western portion of the County and are projected to accommodate nearly two-thirds of the additional growth within the county over the 2050 planning horizon. The City of Salem is also located in Polk County which is impacted by growth and development in the Salem/Keizer urban area. The City of Turner, located just to the south of the City of Salem is directly influenced by the Salem urban area.
· The north County area contains the cities of Aurora, Donald, Gervais, Hubbard, St. Paul, and Woodburn, with Woodburn being the largest community and projected to accommodate the most growth in this area of the county. The north County area is also affected by growth and development in adjoining Clackamas County which forms the southern boundary of the Portland metropolitan region.
· The central County area contains the cities of Mt. Angel, Scotts Mills, and Silverton, with Silverton being the largest community and projected to accommodate the growth in this area of the county.
· The south County area includes the cities of Aumsville, Jefferson, Sublimity, and Stayton, with Stayton being the largest community within this group of cities and projected to accommodate the most growth. The cities of Aumsville, Stayton and Sublimity are clustered together along Highway 22 to the east of Salem, while the City of Jefferson located to the south of Salem off Interstate 5 is also influenced by its proximity to the City of Albany which is in Linn County.
· The east County area includes the smaller cities of Detroit, Gates, Idanha, and Mill City which are located along the North Santiam River canyon with Gates, Idanha, and Mill City also located in Linn County, and are physically separated from the Willamette Valley cities of the County.
The various areas of the County and groups of cities within these areas, have different growth concerns and needs individually as cities and collectively as a region or subarea of the county. The interrelationship between cities and the hierarchy of cities based on size, the services they provide, and the impact of larger cities on surrounding smaller communities, make a regional approach to growth issues sensible and efficient. The willingness of a group of cities to pursue a collaborative approach to finding solutions to growth issues affecting both an area of the county and individual cities as they plan for their future, is a part of the countywide growth management implementation strategy for developing a regional approach to addressing key growth issues facing the cities in the County.
The countywide coordination guidelines addressed in the Framework will be reviewed every five years to assess growth and development patterns, and their impacts on the cities and areas of the County. This review process will be the basis for determining whether changes or modifications to the Framework are necessary due to the actual growth patterns being realized in the County or to address countywide issues involving one or more of the four key growth issues, as they may occur. Revisions can be made at other times if half of the cities request the County initiate an amendment(s) to the Framework or the Marion County Board of Commissioners initiates a review and/or amendment(s) to the Framework.
Each community within Marion County is unique. As a result, individual intergovernmental agreements or compacts will be negotiated and signed with each city and/or groups of cities to address the topics identified in the Framework, and specific city growth issues that may effectively be addressed through such a city/county agreement. The County and cities currently have adopted IGAs in the form of Urban Growth Boundary and Policy Agreements. These IGAs will need to be modified or updated to incorporate Framework and city issues. To ensure coordination and consistency with the Framework and provide guidance in considering and evaluating growth boundary issues, the existing IGAs need to be reviewed and updated prior to a growth boundary expansion proposal in conjunction with a city’s Periodic Review planning process or when a city updates their comprehensive plan where County concurrence is necessary. Minor adjustments or clarifications of the existing growth boundary would not require an updated IGA.
The Framework provides the overall growth management concepts needed to address the key issues regarding transportation, environment, economic development, and housing while identifying the roles that the cities and the County have in cooperatively working to develop solutions to these growth issues. The IGAs or compacts are the collaborative implementation mechanism between each city and the County which will contain the details as to how the city and County will address specific growth issues and concerns which will be different for each city. Growth boundary expansions, identification of possible future areas of expansion or concern, population forecasting adjustments, land efficiency and development standards, data needs and analysis, redevelopment and land needs, economic development strategies, transportation routes, natural resource plans, and growth management tools are some of the various items that can and will be included within the IGAs or compacts between the County and the cities. Modifications to the intergovernmental agreements or compacts can be made with the consent of both the city and the county. The intergovernmental agreements will be reviewed and modified as appropriate during the city’s periodic review process.